On the front end you should consider applying the following techniques, listed roughly in their order of importance.

  • Replace big JavaScript frameworks with “micro-JavaScript” libraries.
  • Use CSS Sprites for background images.
  • Use fonts as “vector sprites” for resolution-independent interface elements, replacing bitmaps.
  • Combine CSS and JavaScript files.
  • Minify (remove whitespace) from HTML, CSS, and JavaScript files.
  • Load CSS in the head, JavaScript at the end of the body to avoid blocking downloads.
  • Use “loader” libraries to further optimize script loading.
  • Use inline images by base64 encoding directly into HTML or CSS markup.
  • Standards-Based HTML and CSS.
  • Use CSS3 styles (e.g. gradients) to replace bitmap images.
  • Use a CSS-enhancing framework, like Compass or LESS.
  • Maximally compress foreground bitmap images with a tool like Smush-It.
  • Use a Content Delivery Network (CDN) for commonly used libraries like jQuery. This allows for more efficient caching on the brower.



Resources for front-end optimization

General-Purpose Minifiers

JavaScript Minifiers


On the back-end you should consider the following techniques

CMS Support – CMS Market Share

Drupal CMS Optimizations

A great article on Drupal CMS optimization for lower carbon footprints:

WordPress CMS Optimizations

WordPress Optimization:

Remove unnecessary scripts:

WordPress WPO Optimization Plugins:

A webhost optimized for WordPress CMS delivery:



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